For many years (decades, centuries), there has been debate as to what should be the relationship between art and religion. From a Christian perspective, should art have any prominent role in the church? What do we do about art made by those who believe differently than us? This might be visual art, literary art, music, or some other form of creativity. Is there a proper response to these things?
Here are eight books that I have either read in full or I am currently reading (currently reading Beauty Will Save the World and Echoes of Eden) about the relationship between art and faith (from a Christian perspective) which will encourage your engagement with the arts while maintaining a thoughtful attitude. You can check out more resources on my page “Faith and the Arts.”
Liberal Arts for the Christian Life a defense of more traditional academic subjects (the humanities) during a cultural crisis in which STEM subjects are often promoted at the expense of a broader education.
The Return of the Prodigal Son Catholic priest Henri Nouwen’s examination of faith and grace (drawn from personal experience) through the lens of Rembrandt’s famous painting.
[I will follow up next week on this post with “5 Reasons Not to Travel;” I figured I’d begin on a positive note.]
It’s like everyone travels these days. There are a billion travel blogs; a billion travel agents or booking sites trying to offer some special deal on hotels, flights, or vacation; a billion exotic photos flooding Instagram. And they are all trying to WOW you into submission. It can be rather overwhelming for the inexperienced traveler. Or jealousy-inducing for those without deep pockets. Or disillusioning for experienced travelers who suddenly realize their totally awesome adventure is not so unique after all (a clear sign of our extreme individualism…don’t worry, I’m right there with you).
Millennials are changing the landscape of modern vacations. They are traveling significantly more than their parents and grandparents, and they’re letting everyone know about it. Of course, I’m simply adding to the travel blog noise, but today I wanted to take it back to the basics. Why is traveling important? Because it is important. But not always for the reasons advertised. Here are five (there are plenty more) of my favorite reasons for traveling.
1) Cultural awareness/sensitivity
Thinking of engaging other cultures can sound so exotic and international. But different cultures exist even within one’s own country. There’s an urban culture versus a rural culture. In the United States there’s a West Coast culture, an East Coast culture, a Southern culture, a Midwest culture, and I’m pretty sure Texas is its own country and culture.
Interacting with people of other cultures gives us the ability to empathize and understand and treat others as human beings (even when we don’t always agree on every ideology or cultural value). Plus, interacting with other cultures means trying new food! Yum!
2) Active living
This isn’t always a reality, but those who travel are often living more actively. They’re biking around new cities. They’re hiking in the outdoors or perhaps along the village-connecting trails of Cinque Terre. They’re taking tours of castles or museums or zoos. They’re swimming in the ocean. They’re white water rafting. I guess what I’m trying to say is TRAVELLING SAVES LIVES (that’s not a stretch, is it?).
This is a touchy issue, and I’m going to address the dangers of this in more detail next week. However, visiting war-torn or impoverished areas (seeing these places in person) is often the impetus to support important causes like clean water, curable diseases, malnutrition, etc. For those who have grown up in a comfort bubble, travel can be the remedy to live awake to the stark realities of the world.
This is one of my favorite and an idea I’d like to develop further in the future. Though modern travel is a bit of a phenomena, journeying for self-discovery is quite ancient. Pilgrimages such as El Camino de Santiago in Spain or the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca are ancient. Silence and solitude have been strong monastic disciplines for hundreds of years. Travel can help you know yourself.
Lastly, travel is fun. Sometimes, we don’t need any better reason than to have fun. Seeing new places invokes a sense of wonder and imagination. When I first backpacked through Europe, the fairy tales that I adored were coming to life in their natural habitat. For me, that was so much fun!
I hope you’ve enjoyed some of this list. Can you think of any other important reasons for travel? I’d love to hear them in the comments below.
I was talking to one of my students today, and we were discussing a book he’s reading, how much he hates a certain character, and how a sign of good story-telling is based upon how much we emotionally hate (secretly love how much we hate) the villain. Thus, my non-expert list of Top Eleven Greatest Villains. Obviously this is pretty broad since I’ve included literary characters as well as film and television characters.
11. Daniel Quilp
This one probably is unfamiliar to most people, but he is the main antagonist in Charles Dickens’ The Old Curiosity Shop. Described as rather dwarfish, Quilp is a brute who treats his wife terribly, constantly prevents the other beloved characters from achieving respite from his wiles, and creepily wants to get rid of his wife and marry beautiful, sweet Little Nell. Thus, though lesser known, he makes the bottom of my list.
10. Thomas Barrow
Yes, I was a Downton Abbey junkie. The early 20th century history drama on PBS follows a British, aristocratic family as they adapt to strong social changes. Thomas Barrow was evil in many of his machinations, but he was tragic. He is a great villain because, like all great characters, he was extremely complex. He had his enemies and his loves. I went from despising him in the first season to rooting heartily for him in the last.
Another lesser-known villain, Ambrose is a protagonist in Patrick Rothfuss’ hit fantasy book series The Kingkiller Chronicle. Ambrose is a classic school rival: rich, egotistical, spoiled, jealous. He’s just talented enough to cause problems (he’s responsible for Kvothe being kicked out of the famous library, being whipped publicly, and being tortured a bit by a sort of voodoo doll), and his misogynist treatment of women makes you want to kick him in the bad place. I didn’t like Draco Malfoy, but I think I’d choose him as a friend over Ambrose Jakis.
R.I.P. Christopher Lee (2015). Saruman both in the film and the book made such a great villain because of his change of alliance. Fighting for good when he thought it was a winning battle, he changed teams when Sauron grew strong. Though Sauron proved to be a stronger villain, Saruman was more human, more prominent to the readers. It made his betrayal all the worse. Nevertheless, as Gandalf prophesied, “There is only one lord of the rings, and he does not share power.”
7. Clubber Lang
Here we go; here’s a fun one. “I pity the fool” who cannot understand the genius of this hard-hitting, boxing bad guy. This villain is not so much twisted as simply iconic. Plus, the best song of the Rocky saga is featured in Rocky III: “Eye of the Tiger.”
Was Macbeth really a villain? Though he was the tragic hero of my absolute favorite Shakespeare play, his hunger for power made him a villain, another one of those complex bad guys whose evil was so profound (he slaughtered the family of Macduff) and yet who managed to elicit pity from the audience. Who cannot but feel some twinge of pity for the man who recognized his inability to wade out of the river of blood he’d stepped in, the man who recognized tortuously that “Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player / That struts and frets his hour upon the stage / And then is heard no more. It is a tale / Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury / Signifying nothing” (Act V, Scene 5)? P.S. I’m a fan of the Michael Fassbender adaptation.
“Why so serious?” Okay, so Heath Ledger’s portrayal of the Joker was inspired. The only reason he’s not ranked higher is because, well, number 4 is too classic, and my top 3 were decided more on their cringe-worthiness. But Ledger’s performance was incredible; that maddening Joker was terrifying in his unpredictability. R.I.P. Heath Ledger (2008).
4. Darth Vader
Trivia: “Luke, I am your father,” is actually a misquotation. Seriously. Check it out here. So…classic of classics here. He might be the most recognized super villain of all time after Satan himself perhaps. Complicated backstory. Redemptive final act to save his son. Great costume. Awesome voice (James Earl Jones). He may not be the villain that makes you wanna squirm like my top 3, but seriously, Darth Vader rocks.
3. Eli Sunday
Though Daniel Plainview was not exactly a good guy, I HATED Eli Sunday. He was an absolute creep in the award-winning There Will Be Blood. Maybe it’s his fanatic, hypocritical, money-grubbing religion that makes him so hateful. But let’s be honest [SPOILER ALERT], no one was upset when his head got smashed in with a bowling pin at the end of the movie.
2. Dolores Umbridge
There were some great villains in Harry Potter–Bellatrix, Greyback, and of course Voldemort himself–but no one truly bugged me like Umbridge. In fact, it was Umbridge more than any character that made me appreciate the genius of Rowling’s characterization; Umbridge legitimately ticked me off. Dressed in pink, acting all cute and sweet, that woman was the devil! She absolutely refused to admit the presence of danger and instead spent her energy torturing Harry or politely (ehem, severely) turning Defense Against the Dark Arts class into a textbook affair. Yeah, I’ll be joining the D.A. thank you very much.
1. Negan [SEASON 7 SPOILER]
Is there really anyone else? At once smiling, at once intense and spilling your guts, the leader of the Saviors in The Walking Dead freaks me out. He is exact. He is unforgiving. HE KILLED GLEN! With his barbed wire bat, Lucille, he seems to have qualms about nothing. He’s sickeningly entertaining. He’s the alpha-male, the head patriarch. He’ll steal your wife and make you thank him for it. What?! Rick, please beat this guy.
Okay, what about you? What do you think about the list? Who would you add/subtract?